Vitamin B3 is used by the body to release energy from
carbohydrates. It’s also needed to form fat
from carbohydrate and to process alcohol. Niacin is
helpful in regulating cholesterol. The body uses the
water-soluble vitamin B3 in the process of releasing
energy from carbohydrates. It is needed to form fat
from carbohydrates and to process alcohol. The niacin
form of vitamin B3 also regulates cholesterol, through
niacinamide does not. Vitamin B3 contributes to more
than 50 vital bodily processes. Among them, vitamin
B3 helps convert food into energy, it helps maintain
skin, nerves, and blood vessels, supports the gastrointestinal
tract, and detoxifies certain drugs and chemicals.
It is also widely believed in the research community
that vitamin B3 helps regulate blood sugar levels.
Vitamin B3 has a powerful, almost drug-like effect,
on the lowering of cholesterol levels and triglycerides,
dilating blood vessels to improve circulation, and
alleviating depression, insomnia, and hyperactivity.
A lack of this vitamin can affect every cell in the
body. It is carried in the blood and found in all
the tissues with the greatest concentrations found
in the liver, kidneys, heart, brain and muscle.
All women need folic acid because it works best for
you and your baby early in the first month of pregnancy,
a time when you may not even know you’re pregnant.
Continued use of folic acid after the first month
of pregnancy, and throughout your life, ensures the
future good health of you and your family. Folic acid
can reduce certain birth defects of the brain and
spinal cord by more than 70 percent. These birth defects
are called neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs happen
when the spinal cord fails to close property. The
most common neural tube defect is spinal bifida. This
occurs when part of the baby’s spinal cord remains
outside the body. The baby may have paralyzed legs
and later, may develop bladder and bowel control problems.
The most serious neural tube defect is anencephaly.
The baby is born without part of its skull and brain
and eventually dies. Folic acid also may help lower
your chances of getting heart disease and some types
of cancers. It may help protect you from having a
stroke, as well.
Zinc is an essential mineral that is found in almost
every cell. It stimulates the activity of approximately
100 enzymes, which are substances that promote biochemical
reaction in your body. Zinc supports a healthy immune
system, is needed for wound healing, helps maintain
your sense of taste and smell, and is needed for DNA
synthesis. Zinc also supports normal growth and development
during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Zinc
plays an important role in the structure of proteins
and cell membranes. A finger-like structure, known
as a zinc finger motif, stabilizes the structure of
a number of proteins. For example, copper provides
the catalytic activity for the antioxidant enzyme
copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), while
zinc plays a critical structural role. The structure
and function of cell membranes are also affected by
zinc. Loss of zinc from biological membranes increases
their susceptibility to oxidative damage and impairs
Most of the body’s sodium is located in the
blood and in the fluid in the space surrounding the
cells. Sodium is required by all cells in the body
to maintain a normal fluid balance. Sodium plays a
key role in normal nerve and muscle function. Sodium
is taken in through food and drink and lost primarily
in sweat and urine. Healthy kidneys maintain a consistent
level of sodium in the body by adjusting the amount
excreted in the urine. When sodium intake and loss
are not in balance, the total amount of sodium are
closely linked to changes in the volume of water in
the blood. A loss of sodium from the body does not
necessarily cause the level of sodium in the blood
to decrease but does cause blood volume to decrease.
When blood volume decreases, blood pressure also decreases,
heart rate increases, and light-headedness and sometimes
Chloride is one of the most important minerals in
the blood, along with sodium, potassium, and calcium.
Chloride helps keep the amount of fluid inside and
outside of cells in balance. It also helps maintain
proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of body
fluids. Chloride is a binary compound of chlorine;
a salt of hydrochloric acid. In health, blood serum
contains 100 to 110 mmo1/L of chloride ions. Chloride
is the major extra cellular anion and contributes
to many body functions including the maintenance of
osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity,
and the movement of water between fluid compartments.
It is associated with sodium in the blood and was
the first electrolyte to be routinely measured in
the blood. Chloride ions are secreted in the gastric
juice as hydrochloric acid, which is essential for
the digestion of food.